What is Genetic Testing?
Genetic-related tests are divided into pathogen genetic testing, somatic cell genetic testing, and genetic testing.
It can be classified according to what DNA is being examined.
Table of Contents
- Pathogen Gene Test
- Somatic Cell Genetic Test
- Germ Cell Genetic Testing
Pathogen Gene Test
We detect and analyze nucleic acids of exogenous pathogens that cause infectious diseases in humans. (Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Hepatitis C virus, etc.)
Genetic testing for pathogens also depends on the purpose of the test.
Examinations are performed for diagnosis and early diagnosis.
- Detection and Identification of Inflammatory Microorganisms
- Detection and identification of pathogenic toxins
- Viral nucleic acid extraction and quantification
The main method of testing is the PCR method.
The examination is performed for the purpose of treatment.
- Drug Resistance Genetic Testing
- Viral nucleic acid quantification test
- Tests to classify genotypes
- Detection of genetic mutations
These are mainly PCR methods, but also tests called sequencing methods.
Epidemiological tests to identify the source of infection and route of transmission
- Pathogenic E. coli O157, etc.
The PCR method is mainly used.
Somatic Cell Genetic Test
Detects gene structures unique to cancer cells and provides genetic information on gene expression and lesion changes. It is characterized by the fact that it is not inherited. All cells in the body are called somatic cells. In cancer, a portion of cells throughout the human body become cancerous and change their DNA.
Cancer genetic testing, which is covered by insurance, is commonly performed in hospitals across the country. They are performed to diagnose cancer, determine the effectiveness of drugs, and determine if side effects are likely to occur. Cancer tissue removed by biopsy or surgery is tested for genes.
In recent years, simple genetic tests are also easily available commercially.
- Definitive diagnosis and prognosis of disease
- Selection of molecularly targeted drugs and other therapies
- (Having) Therapeutic value
Effects of Medication
In the case of breast, lung, colon, stomach, and other cancers, genetic testing of cancer tissue removed by biopsy or surgery can be performed to determine the effectiveness of drugs and the ease with which drugs work.
What is covered by insurance
The cancer gene tests that are covered by insurance vary depending on the genes and medications to be examined.
Commercial Genetic Testing
This is a genetic test to determine susceptibility to cancer and lifestyle-related diseases.
Germ Cell Genetic Testing
It is used for prenatal diagnosis, testing for inherited diseases such as single gene and multifactorial diseases, and transplantation medicine. It is characterized by inheritance. Germline (gemline) genetic testing is performed from birth to death, with results remaining the same for life.
There are tests for human genetic mutations that do not change throughout life and genetic information that is transmitted to the next generation. These include genetic and chromosome testing.
- Diagnosis of single gene diseases
- Familial genetic testing, etc.
- Changes in the number and structure of chromosomes