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For those who want to easily understand the new coronavirus mutated virus (May 2021)

For those who want to understand the new coronavirus easily

This article will help you understand primary information about novel coronaviruses from public research institutions and papers.
From a reliable source, you will be able to make the right decisions and choices.

This article allows you to obtain reliable information

'What information about the new coronavirus should I trust?'

'I don't know what N501Y or E484K means.'

This article addresses these concerns.

Specifically,

  • Words that medical professionals, researchers, and the media use as a matter of course but do not understand.
  • Reliable information as of May 2021, based on public research institutions and papers
  • As of May 2021, the mutations that make vaccines less effective are

Explanation of the

If you do not have access to reliable information, the only sources of information will be rumors and media with little basis or credibility.
You may be lured by lax information and sweet words, and you may not be able to make your own decisions and choices.
You will be more likely to be controlled by others and more likely to be scammed.

However, this article will help you understand primary information from public research institutions and papers.
From a reliable source, you will be able to make the right decisions and choices.

Mutant viruses have different surfaces.

When a virus mutates, the structure of the spike protein on the virus surface changes.
Spike proteins are the bridge between us and the novel coronavirus.
Without the spike protein, the virus cannot infect us.

The mutation would change the spike protein,

  • More susceptible to infection
  • Vaccines become less effective.
  • Increased susceptibility to serious illness

The National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID) has released a report on

Mutation is a change in genetic information

The genetic information changes, and even the proteins made by the virus itself are changed, which is called mutation.

The genetic information of the novel coronavirus is called RNA,

  • Adenine (A)
  • Guanine (G)
  • Uracil (U)
  • Cytosine (C)

The substance is composed of about 300,000 randomly arranged
RNA can be likened to a protein blueprint, and proteins are made based on the blueprint.
In other words, if the blueprint is rewritten by mutation, the protein produced will also change.

For example, let us assume that AAUUG is a blueprint for a "protein that increases the viability of the virus.

※AAUUG is not a blueprint for a "protein that makes the virus more viable". For the sake of clarity, this is a tentative setting.

Here a mutation occurred, AAUUG to AAUGG.

If AAUGG is the blueprint for a "protein with weakened viability," then the viability of the virus has been weakened, right?

N501Y and E484K are amino acid mutations

How to Mutate

N501Y and E484K, as reported in the news, are symbols for mutation.

N501Y is the 501st amino acid in the spike protein from N (aspartic acid) to Y (tyrosine).
E484K also shows the 484th amino acid as E (glutamic acid) to K (lysine).

As RNA changes, so do amino acids.

'Wasn't the mutation the replacement of genetic information in the RNA?'
Does anyone else feel this way?

In conclusion, RNA mutations are directly linked to amino acid mutations.

RNA was the blueprint for proteins, right?
Protein is a collection of amino acids.

Mutations in RNA change the amino acids produced, so different proteins are produced.

For example, if the ingredients, not just protein, change, the finished product will be different.

What is the difference between Type 00 and N501Y, etc.

The British, South African, and Brazilian types are generic names for combinations of several mutations.

The UK type is the one with N501Y.

However, not all N501Ys are British.
British type (B.1.1.7) besides N501Y,

  • H69/V70loss of life 
  • Y144loss of life 
  • A570D 
  • P681H

mutations.

In other words, the combination of several mutations is the British type.

While the South African type (B.1351) also has N501Y,

  • 242-244loss of life 
  • K417N
  • E484K 

mutations, and the combination of these mutations is called the South African type.

VOC and VOI are degrees of danger

The risk of novel coronaviruses is divided into Variants of Concern (VOC) and Variants of Interest (VOI).
The reason for this is that there is a difference in infectivity and the probability of serious illness.

VOC is a mutant strain of greater risk and concern than VOI.
It is considered a probable virus with altered properties, such as increased infectivity and severity, and weakened vaccine efficacy.

VOCには、

  • British type B.1.1.7
  • South Africa type B.1351
  • Brazil type P1

is specified.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has placed 452R.V1 (B.1.427+B.1.429), found in California, as a VOC (March 16, 2021).

In addition, the Indian type reported an increase in risk from VOI to VOC (May 11, 2021).

VOI is a noteworthy mutant strain.
It has a high probability of affecting infectivity and severity vaccine effectiveness.
The R1 strain is considered a VOI.

The Philippine type is considered a VOC in Japan, not a VOC in the Philippines.

Mutant Viruses in the World and Japan

British type in vogue around the world

The global share of the new coronavirus mutation virus is,

  • UK type (130 countries)
  • South Africa type (80 countries)
  • Brazil type (45 countries)

(2021 3/28point in time WHO COVID-19 Weekly Epidemiological Update.28,March 2021,10am than)

According to GISAID, the agency that tracks new coronavirus mutations,

  • 452R.V1 (B.1.427+B.1.429), found in California.
  • Newly discovered in the UK, 484K.V3 (B.1.525)
  • Indian type, 452R.V3 (B.1.617)

is a mutation found in the world in addition to the above three species.

In Japan?

Reported the highest share of the UK type.
Existing viruses are expected to change to the British type in the future.

South African, Brazilian, and Indian types were also identified in the country.
In addition, there were cases of the Philippine strain, known as P3, and the R1 strain, the source of which is unknown.

What type of vaccine is less effective?

In May 2021, the vaccine co-developed by Pfizer Inc. and Biontec Inc. is being offered as an advance vaccination in Japan.
The Japanese government has agreed to vaccinate AstraZeneca and Moderna, and approval is expected by the end of May 2021.

Based on data from the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, the disease is endemic worldwide,

  • British style
  • South African type
  • Brazilian type
  • Philippine style
  • Indian Ocean type (e.g. protein, vitamin, etc.)

Explain how the neutralizing capacity*1 of the vaccine changes in response to the

※1 Neutralizing capacity: the ability of a virus to lose its effect. For example, a high neutralizing capacity makes it easier to prevent viral infection and development.

Decreased vaccine efficacy, South African and Brazilian types

As of May 2021, all vaccines show the same level of efficacy, albeit with minute differences.

Three vaccines are reported to be effective against the British type.
Neutralizing capacity to vaccine is the same or slightly lower than that of conventional coronaviruses.

However, the South African and Brazilian types have been reported to have a low to medium neutralizing capacity of the three vaccines.

Having E484K and N501Y reduces vaccine effectiveness

I have N501Y and E484K,

  • Brazilian type
  • South African type
  • Philippine style

The R1 strain, a VOI, also has E484K.
However, the R1 strain does not have N501Y, and the effect of E484K alone on vaccine efficacy is still only in the potential stage.

A study published in Nature Medicine in March 2021 also found that E484K reduces the efficacy of Pfizer/Biontec vaccines.

This study is blood (with antibodies) from people who have been cured and Pfizer/Biontec's vaccine,

  • British style
  • Brazilian type
  • South African type

We tested how well it could neutralize the mutant viruses of the
Neutralization, as referred to in the experiment, is a phenomenon that eliminates the effects of the virus.

Results showed that the British type neutralized the conventional novel coronavirus with the same amount of antibodies.
However, it was reported that neutralization of the South African and Brazilian types required 3.5 to 4 times the amount of antibodies as conventional new coronaviruses.

All three variants have N501Y.
However, it is the Brazilian and South African types that have E484K.

In other words, it is thought that mutant viruses with both E484K and N501Y may make the vaccine less effective.

Vaccine is also hard to work on Indian type?

family (e.g. of languages)Major Mutations in Spike Proteins
B.1617
(Indian type)
G142D,E154K,L452R,E484Q,D614G,P681R,Q1071H
B.1617.2T19R,G142D,157/158 missing, L452R,T478K,D614G,P681R,D950N
B.1617.3T19R,L452R,E484Q,D614G,P681R,D950N

The Indian type (B.1617) has B.1.617.1 through B.1.617.3.
The mutations common to all three are,

  • L452R
  • D614G
  • P681R

And even B.1.617.1 is even E484Q.
With these mutations, one would expect

  • Vaccine effectiveness reduced to 1/3
  • Once recovered, the effectiveness of antibodies in people is reduced by 1/2

However, it is only an evaluation in a laboratory setting and should be interpreted with caution.

References